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Reanalysis refers to physically-based numerical frameworks that simulate the state Earth's
climate through time, guided by frequent input of real-world observations (e.g., weather stations,
radiosonde, satellite, and ocean buoys). Reanalysis models are invaluable tools for understanding
climate variability and change, including across areas where direct observations are not
available. Climate Reanalyzer provides access to common meteorological variables for the most
widely used reanalysis models. More information about reanalysis can be found at
The initial release of ERA5 begins 1979, but a preliminary back extension 1950-1978 became available in November, 2020. ECMWF
the back extension contains unrealistically intense tropical cycles, and that a replacement version should be ready in late 2021.
Model domain based on a polar stereographic projection with minimum latitudes ranging 27°N-41°N.
Gridded data products place point-based or spatially discontinuous observations of
Earth's climate (e.g., temperature, precipitation, wind, and sea surface temperature) onto
time-registered grids and fill in data gaps using methods of interpolation. As with reanalysis,
gridded datasets are useful for climate study in areas that may not have direct observations,
but where the intersection of surrounding input data can provide meaningful information. Climate
Reanalyzer provides access to several widely used gridded datasets.
Climate models afford physically-based simulations of energy and material flows through
the atmosphere, ocean, and other parts of the earth system. The most complex of these frameworks
are earth system models, where multiple systems are coupled and yield dynamic interactions.
Climate and earth system models are used to investigate past, present, and future climate
evolution based on changes in radiative forcing, such as from greenhouse-gas emissions. Since
1995, the international consortium
Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP) has organized a common set of experiments for
modeling groups to use in future climate studies. CMIP 5 and 6 multi-model ensemble mean results
(near-surface temperature, precipitation, and mean sea level pressure) are available from
Climate Reanalzyer for mid- and high-warming scenarios to the year 2100. Scenarios in CMIP5 are
based on Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP), and in CMIP6 on Shared Socioeconomic
Pathways (SSP). Further explanation on CMIP5 and 6 can be found
The ensemble mean CMIP 5 and 6 datafiles on this page where generated from the
KNMI Climate Explorer.
CMIP6 SSP5-8.5 radiative forcing stabilizes at 8.5 W m-2 by the year 2100
(equivalent to stabilization level of CMIP5 RCP 8.5). Refer to
O'Neill et al. (2016) for further description.
Ensemble average of 13 models (one member each: AWI-CM-1-1-MR, BCC-CSM2-MR, CAMS-CSM1-0, CanESM5 p1, CanESM5 p2, CESM2, CESM2-WACCM,
FGOALS-g3, MCM-UA-1-0 f2, MIROC6, MIROC-ES2L f2, MRI-ESM2-0, UKESM1-0-LL f2).
This website is produced by the
Climate Change Institute
at the University of Maine.
Our institute has more than a 40-year history of polar exploration, and research
contributions to glaciology, climate science, and anthropology.
Climate Reanalyzer utilizes and provides access to existing publicly-available
datasets and models. Original data sources are provided on the
Available Datasets page.
How to Reference
Please cite both original
data sources and Climate Reanalyzer for any data or images from this website appearing in
journal publications. Suggested journal reference:
"[Data/Image] from Climate Reanalyzer (https://ClimateReanalyzer.org),
Climate Change Institute, University of Maine, USA."
We make every effort to provide datasets and visualizations that are accurate and error-free.
Report bugs to the contact e-mail below.
E-mail firstname.lastname@example.org or
visit Climate Reanalyzer on Facebook.
Please know that we cannot accept special requests
for new site content per limited human resources.